Patrick Carter, MD

A photo of Patrick Carter.
  • Associate Director
  • Associate Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School

Affiliation:

Biography

Dr. Carter is an Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine (School of Medicine) and Health Behavior & Health Education (School of Public Health), and a practicing board-certified emergency physician at the UM. He is the Associate Director of the MI-YVPC, and the Principal Investigator for the SafERteens multi-site implementation project. He is the Co-Director of the University of Michigan (UM) Institute for Firearm Injury Prevention and the CDC-funded UM Injury Prevention Center. Dr. Carter’s research is focused on firearm injury prevention, specifically the development, testing, and implementation of emergency department (ED)‐based interventions to decrease firearm violence, youth violence, and associated risk behaviors, such as substance use among high‐risk urban youth populations. Dr. Carter has research funding as a PI or Co-I on grants from NIDA, NIAAA, CDCP, and NICHD, all focused within the field of violence and injury prevention.

Publications

Zimmerman, M. A., Bartholow, B. N., Carter, P. M., Cunningham, R. M., Gorman-Smith, D., Heinze, J. E., Hohl, B., Kingston, B. E., Sigel, E. J., Sullivan, T. N., Vagi, K. J., Bowen, D. A., & Wendel, M. L. (2021). Youth Firearm Injury Prevention: Applications from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Funded Youth Violence Prevention Centers. American Journal of Public Health, 111(S1), S32–S34. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306311
Stoddard, S. A., Meier-Austic, E., Epstein-Ngo, Q., Walton, M., Carter, P. M., Heinze, J. E., Zimmerman, M. A., & Cunningham, R. (2020). Substance use and mental health predictors of patterns of non-partner youth violence among high-risk urban youth. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 213, 108117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2020.108117
Sokol, R. L., Zimmerman, M. A., Rupp, L., Heinze, J. E., Cunningham, R. M., & Carter, P. M. (2021). Firearm purchasing during the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in households with teens: a national study. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 44(6), 874–882. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-021-00242-w
Sokol, R. L., Marineau, L., Zimmerman, M. A., Rupp, L. A., Cunningham, R. M., & Carter, P. M. (2021). Why some parents made firearms more accessible during the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic: results from a national study. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 44(6), 867–873. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-021-00243-9
Sokol, R. L., Kumodzi, T., Cunningham, R. M., Resnicow, K., Steiger, M., Walton, M., Zimmerman, M. A., & Carter, P. M. (2022). The association between perceived community violence, police bias, race, and firearm carriage among urban adolescents and young adults. Preventive Medicine, 154, 106897. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2021.106897
Sokol, R. L., Carter, P. M., Goldstick, J., Miller, A. L., Walton, M. A., Zimmerman, M. A., & Cunningham, R. M. (2020). Within-Person Variability in Firearm Carriage Among High-Risk Youth. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 59(3), 386–393. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2020.03.005
Seewald, L. A., Myers, M., Zimmerman, M. A., Walton, M. A., Cunningham, R. M., Rupp, L. A., Haasz, M., & Carter, P. M. (2022). Firearm safety counseling among caregivers of high-school age teens: Results from a National Survey. Preventive Medicine, 107285. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2022.107285
Roszko, P. J. D., Ameli, J., Carter, P. M., Cunningham, R. M., & Ranney, M. L. (2016). Clinician Attitudes, Screening Practices, and Interventions to Reduce Firearm-Related Injury. Epidemiologic Reviews, 38(1), 87–110. https://doi.org/10.1093/epirev/mxv005
Roche, J. S., Clery, M. J., Carter, P. M., Dora-Laskey, A., Walton, M. A., Ngo, Q. M., & Cunningham, R. M. (2018). Tracking Assault-injured, Drug-using Youth in Longitudinal Research: Follow-up Methods. Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1111/acem.13495
Roche, J. S., Carter, P. M., Zeoli, A. M., Cunningham, R. M., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2023). Challenges, Successes, and the Future of Firearm Injury Prevention. The Milbank Quarterly, 101(S1), 579–612. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0009.12621
Rauk, L., Rupp, L., Hohl, B. C., Kondo, M. C., Ornelas, L., Carter, P. M., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2023). Lessons learned from local vacant land management organizations for engaging youth in greening. American Journal of Community Psychology, ajcp.12688. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajcp.12688
Ranney, M. L., Goldstick, J., Eisman, A., Carter, P. M., Walton, M., & Cunningham, R. M. (2017). Effects of a brief ED-based alcohol and violence intervention on depressive symptoms. General Hospital Psychiatry, 46, 44–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2017.01.008
Ranney, M. L., Fletcher, J., Alter, H., Barsotti, C., Bebarta, V. S., Betz, M. E., Carter, P. M., Cerdá, M., Cunningham, R. M., Crane, P., Fahimi, J., Miller, M. J., Rowhani-Rahbar, A., Vogel, J. A., Wintemute, G. J., Waseem, M., Shah, M. N., & ACEP Technical Advisory Group on Firearm Injury Research, a Subcommittee of the ACEP Research Committee. (2017). A Consensus-Driven Agenda for Emergency Medicine Firearm Injury Prevention Research. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 69(2), 227–240. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2016.08.454
Pelletier, K. R., Schmidt, C. J., Seewald, L., Cunningham, R. M., Zimmerman, M. A., Walton, M. A., Resnicow, K., & Carter, P. M. (2022). Understanding factors associated with firearm possession: Examining differences between male and female adolescents and emerging adults seeking emergency department care. Preventive Medicine, 107286. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2022.107286
Oliphant, S. N., Mouch, C. A., Rowhani-Rahbar, A., Hargarten, S., Jay, J., Hemenway, D., Zimmerman, M., Carter, P. M., & FACTS Consortium. (2019). A scoping review of patterns, motives, and risk and protective factors for adolescent firearm carriage. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 42(4), 763–810. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-019-00048-x
Lee, D. B., Hsieh, H.-F., Stoddard, S. A., Heinze, J. E., Carter, P. M., Goldstick, J. E., Cunningham, M. C., Cunningham, R. M., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2020). Longitudinal pathway from violence exposure to firearm carriage among adolescents: The role of future expectation. Journal of Adolescence, 81, 101–113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2020.03.009
Gong, C., Bushman, G., Hohl, B., Kondo, M., Carter, P., Cunningham, R., Rupp, L., Grodzinski, A., Branas, C., Vagi, K., & Zimmerman, M. (2022). Community engagement, greening, and violent crime: a test of the greening hypothesis and busy streets. Injury Prevention, 28(Suppl 1), A44–A44. https://doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2022-SAVIR.113
Goldstick, J. E., Carter, P. M., Walton, M. A., Dahlberg, L. L., Sumner, S. A., Zimmerman, M. A., & Cunningham, R. M. (2017). Development of the SaFETy Score: A Clinical Screening Tool for Predicting Future Firearm Violence Risk. Annals of Internal Medicine, 166(10), 707–714. https://doi.org/10.7326/M16-1927
Goldstick, J. E., Carter, P. M., Heinze, J. E., Walton, M. A., Zimmerman, M., & Cunningham, R. M. (2019). Predictors of transitions in firearm assault behavior among drug-using youth presenting to an urban emergency department. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 42(4), 635–645. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-019-00021-8
Goldstick, J. E., Roche, J. S., Carter, P. M., Arterberry, B. J., Bonar, E. E., Walton, M. A., Zimmerman, M., & Cunningham, R. M. (2018). Sex Differences in the Association Between Gaming and Serious Violence Among Predominantly African American Youth. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 886260518764104. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260518764104
Goldstick, J. E., Bohnert, K. M., Davis, A. K., Bonar, E. E., Carter, P. M., Walton, M. A., & Cunningham, R. M. (2018). Dual Trajectories of Depression/Anxiety Symptoms and Alcohol Use, and their Implications for Violence Outcomes Among Drug-Using Urban Youth. Alcohol and Alcoholism (Oxford, Oxfordshire), 53(6), 659–666. https://doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agy036
Goldstick, J. E., Stoddard, S. A., Carter, P. M., Zimmerman, M. A., Walton, M. A., & Cunningham, R. M. (2016). Characteristic substance misuse profiles among youth entering an urban emergency department: neighborhood correlates and behavioral comorbidities. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 42(6), 671–681. https://doi.org/10.1080/00952990.2016.1174707
Goldstick, J. E., Lipton, R. I., Carter, P., Stoddard, S. A., Newton, M. F., Reischl, T., Walton, M., Zimmerman, M. A., & Cunningham, R. M. (2015). The Effect of Neighborhood Context on the Relationship Between Substance Misuse and Weapons Aggression in Urban Adolescents Seeking ED Care. Substance Use & Misuse. https://doi.org/10.3109/10826084.2014.998235
Cunningham, R. M., Carter, P. M., Ranney, M. L., Walton, M., Zeoli, A. M., Alpern, E. R., Branas, C., Beidas, R. S., Ehrlich, P. F., Goyal, M. K., Goldstick, J. E., Hemenway, D., Hargarten, S. W., King, C. A., Massey, L., Ngo, Q., Pizarro, J., Prosser, L., Rowhani-Rahbar, A., … Zimmerman, M. A. (2019). Prevention of Firearm Injuries Among Children and Adolescents: Consensus-Driven Research Agenda from the Firearm Safety Among Children and Teens (FACTS) Consortium. JAMA Pediatrics, 173(8), 780–789. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.1494
Cunningham, R. M., Zimmerman, M. A., & Carter, P. M. (2019). Money, Politics, and Firearm Safety: Physician Political Action Committees in the Era of “This is Our Lane.” JAMA Network Open, 2(2), e187823. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.7823
Cunningham, R. M., Carter, P. M., & Zimmerman, M. (2019). The Firearm Safety Among Children and Teens (FACTS) Consortium: defining the current state of the science on pediatric firearm injury prevention. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 42(4), 702–705. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-019-00077-6
Cunningham, R. M., Walton, M. A., & Carter, P. M. (2018). The Major Causes of Death in Children and Adolescents in the United States. The New England Journal of Medicine, 379(25), 2468–2475. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMsr1804754
Cunningham, R. M., Carter, P. M., Ranney, M., Zimmerman, M. A., Blow, F. C., Booth, B. M., Goldstick, J., & Walton, M. A. (2015). Violent reinjury and mortality among youth seeking emergency department care for assault-related injury: a 2-year prospective cohort study. JAMA Pediatrics, 169(1), 63–70. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.1900
Carter, P. M., Walton, M. A., Zimmerman, M. A., Chermack, S. T., Roche, J. S., & Cunningham, R. M. (2016). Efficacy of a Universal Brief Intervention for Violence Among Urban Emergency Department Youth. Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, 23(9), 1061–1070. https://doi.org/10.1111/acem.13021
Carter, P. M., Cranford, J. A., Buu, A., Walton, M. A., Zimmerman, M. A., Goldstick, J., Ngo, Q., & Cunningham, R. M. (2019). Daily patterns of substance use and violence among a high-risk urban emerging adult sample: Results from the Flint Youth Injury Study. Addictive Behaviors, 101, 106127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2019.106127
Carter, P. M., Zimmerman, M. A., & Cunningham, R. M. (2021). Addressing Key Gaps in Existing Longitudinal Research and Establishing a Pathway Forward for Firearm Violence Prevention Research. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology: The Official Journal for the Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, American Psychological Association, Division 53, 50(3), 367–384. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2021.1913741
Carter, P. M., Dora-Laskey, A. D., Goldstick, J. E., Heinze, J. E., Walton, M. A., Zimmerman, M. A., Roche, J. S., & Cunningham, R. M. (2018). Arrests Among High-Risk Youth Following Emergency Department Treatment for an Assault Injury. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 55(6), 812–821. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2018.07.003
Carter, P. M., Walton, M. A., Goldstick, J., Epstein-Ngo, Q. M., Zimmerman, M. A., Mercado, M. C., Williams, A. G., & Cunningham, R. M. (2017). Violent firearm-related conflicts among high-risk youth: An event-level and daily calendar analysis. Preventive Medicine, 102, 112–119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2017.07.011
Carter, P. M., Cook, L. J., Macy, M. L., Zonfrillo, M. R., Stanley, R. M., Chamberlain, J. M., Fein, J. A., Alpern, E. R., Cunningham, R. M., & Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN). (2017). Individual and Neighborhood Characteristics of Children Seeking Emergency Department Care for Firearm Injuries Within the PECARN Network. Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, 24(7), 803–813. https://doi.org/10.1111/acem.13200
Carter, P. M., Walton, M. A., Roehler, D. R., Goldstick, J., Zimmerman, M. A., Blow, F. C., & Cunningham, R. M. (2015). Firearm Violence Among High-Risk Emergency Department Youth After an Assault Injury. Pediatrics, peds.2014-3572. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2014-3572
Carter, P. M., Walton, M. A., Newton, M. F., Clery, M., Whiteside, L. K., Zimmerman, M. A., & Cunningham, R. M. (2013). Firearm possession among adolescents presenting to an urban emergency department for assault. Pediatrics, 132(2), 213–221. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2013-0163
Carter, P. M., & Cunningham, R. M. (2016). Adequate Funding for Injury Prevention Research Is the Next Critical Step to Reduce Morbidity and Mortality From Firearm Injuries. Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, 23(8), 952–955. https://doi.org/10.1111/acem.12982
Burt, C. J., Kondo, M. C., Hohl, B. C., Gong, C. H., Bushman, G., Wixom, C., South, E. C., Cunningham, R. M., Carter, P. M., Branas, C. C., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2021). Community Greening, Fear of Crime, and Mental Health Outcomes. American Journal of Community Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajcp.12544