Sarah Stoddard

  • Assistant Professor
  • UM School of Nursing



Dr. Stoddard is an Assistant Professor in the School of Nursing with a joint appointment in the Department of Health Behavior and Health Education in the School of Public Health. Her research interests include understanding the interaction between individual factors and social and environmental factors (e.g., neighborhood characteristics), and how together they shape the psychosocial development and health trajectories of at-risk urban youth. In 2013, she was awarded an Early Career Development Award (K01) from the National Institute on Drug Abuse to study the role of neighborhood characteristics on the co-occurrence of alcohol and drug use and violence among youth. In addition, she studies the application of behavioral and ecological approaches to preventing risk behaviors in youth.


In Press

Choe, D. E., Stoddard, S. A., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2014). Developmental trajectories of African American adolescents’ family conflict: differences in mental health problems in young adulthood. Dev Psychol, 50(4), 1226–1232.
Eisman, A. B., Lee, D. B., Hsieh, H.-F., Stoddard, S. A., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2018). More Than Just Keeping Busy: The Protective Effects of Organized Activity Participation on Violence and Substance Use Among Urban Youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 47(10), 2231–2242.
Eisman, A. B., Stoddard, S. A., Heinze, J., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2015). Depressive symptoms, social support, and violence exposure among urban youth: A longitudinal study of resilience. Developmental Psychology, 51(9), 1307–1316.
Epstein-Ngo, Q. M., McCabe, S. E., Veliz, P. T., Stoddard, S. A., Austic, E. A., & Boyd, C. J. (2016). Diversion of ADHD Stimulants and Victimization Among Adolescents. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 41(7), 786–798.
Goldstick, J. E., Lipton, R. I., Carter, P., Stoddard, S. A., Newton, M. F., Reischl, T., Walton, M., Zimmerman, M. A., & Cunningham, R. M. (2015). The Effect of Neighborhood Context on the Relationship Between Substance Misuse and Weapons Aggression in Urban Adolescents Seeking ED Care. Substance Use & Misuse.
Goldstick, J. E., Stoddard, S. A., Carter, P. M., Zimmerman, M. A., Walton, M. A., & Cunningham, R. M. (2016). Characteristic substance misuse profiles among youth entering an urban emergency department: neighborhood correlates and behavioral comorbidities. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 42(6), 671–681.
Heinze, J. E., Stoddard, S. A., Aiyer, S. M., Eisman, A. B., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2017). Exposure to violence during adolescence as a predictor of perceived stress trajectories in emerging adulthood. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 49, 31–38.
Hurd, N. M., Stoddard, S. A., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2013). Neighborhoods, social support, and African American adolescents’ mental health outcomes: a multilevel path analysis. Child Dev, 84(3), 858–874.
Kruger, D. J., Carrothers, J., Franzen, S. P., Miller, A. L., Reischl, T. M., Stoddard, S. A., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2015). The Role of Present Time Perspective in Predicting Early Adolescent Violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence.
Lee, D. B., Hsieh, H.-F., Stoddard, S. A., Heinze, J. E., Carter, P. M., Goldstick, J. E., Cunningham, M. C., Cunningham, R. M., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2020). Longitudinal pathway from violence exposure to firearm carriage among adolescents: The role of future expectation. Journal of Adolescence, 81, 101–113.
Morrel-Samuels, S., Rupp, L. A., Eisman, A. B., Miller, A. L., Stoddard, S. A., Franzen, S. P., Hutchison, P., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2018). Measuring the Implementation of Youth Empowerment Solutions. Health Promotion Practice, 19(4), 581–589.
Pierce, J., Schmidt, C., & Stoddard, S. A. (2015). The role of feared possible selves in the relationship between peer influence and delinquency. Journal of Adolescence, 38, 17–26.
Schmidt, C. J., Zimmerman, M. A., & Stoddard, S. A. (2018). A Longitudinal Analysis of the Indirect Effect of Violence Exposure on Future Orientation Through Perceived Stress and the Buffering Effect of Family Participation. American Journal of Community Psychology, 62(1–2), 62–74.
Singh, V., Walton, M. A., Whiteside, L. K., Stoddard, S., Epstein-Ngo, Q., Chermack, S. T., & Cunningham, R. M. (2014). Dating Violence Among Male and Female Youth Seeking Emergency Department Care. Ann Emerg Med.
Singh, V., Epstein-Ngo, Q., Cunningham, R. M., Stoddard, S. A., Chermack, S. T., & Walton, M. A. (2015). Physical dating violence among adolescents and young adults with alcohol misuse. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 153, 364–368.
Stoddard, S. A., & Pierce, J. (2015). Promoting Positive Future Expectations During Adolescence: The Role of Assets. American Journal of Community Psychology, 56(3–4), 332–341.
Stoddard, S. A., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2011). Association of interpersonal violence with self-reported history of head injury. Pediatrics, 127(6), 1074–1079.
Stoddard, S. A., Whiteside, L., Zimmerman, M. A., Cunningham, R. M., Chermack, S. T., & Walton, M. A. (2013). The relationship between cumulative risk and promotive factors and violent behavior among urban adolescents. Am J Community Psychol, 51(1–2), 57–65.
Stoddard, S. A., McMorris, B. J., & Sieving, R. E. (2010). Do Social Connections and Hope Matter in Predicting Early Adolescent Violence? Am J Community Psychol.
Stoddard, S. A., Henly, S. J., Sieving, R. E., & Bolland, J. (2011). Social connections, trajectories of hopelessness, and serious violence in impoverished urban youth. J Youth Adolesc, 40(3), 278–295.
Stoddard, S. A., Epstein-Ngo, Q., Walton, M. A., Zimmerman, M. A., Chermack, S. T., Blow, F. C., Booth, B. M., & Cunningham, R. M. (2015). Substance use and violence among youth: a daily calendar analysis. Substance Use & Misuse, 50(3), 328–339.
Stoddard, S. A., Varela, J. J., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2015). Future Expectations, Attitude Toward Violence, and Bullying Perpetration During Early Adolescence: A Mediation Evaluation. Nursing Research, 64(6), 422–433.
Stoddard, S. A., Zimmerman, M. A., & Bauermeister, J. A. (2011). Thinking about the future as a way to succeed in the present: a longitudinal study of future orientation and violent behaviors among African American youth. Am J Community Psychol, 48(3–4), 238–246.
Stoddard, S. A., Heinze, J. E., Choe, D. E., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2015). Predicting violent behavior: The role of violence exposure and future educational aspirations during adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 44, 191–203.
Stoddard, S. A., Meier-Austic, E., Epstein-Ngo, Q., Walton, M., Carter, P. M., Heinze, J. E., Zimmerman, M. A., & Cunningham, R. (2020). Substance use and mental health predictors of patterns of non-partner youth violence among high-risk urban youth. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 213, 108117.
Varela, J. J., Zimmerman, M. A., Ryan, A. M., Stoddard, S. A., Heinze, J. E., & Alfaro, J. (2017). Life Satisfaction, School Satisfaction, and School Violence: A Mediation Analysis for Chilean Adolescent Victims and Perpetrators. Child Indicators Research, 1–19.
Varela, J., Zimmerman, M., Ryan, A., Stoddard, S., & Heinze, J. (2018). School Attachment and Violent Attitudes Preventing Future Violent Behavior Among Youth. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 088626051880031.
Zimmerman, M. A., Eisman, A. B., Reischl, T. M., Morrel-Samuels, S., Stoddard, S., Miller, A. L., Hutchison, P., Franzen, S., & Rupp, L. (2018). Youth Empowerment Solutions: Evaluation of an After-School Program to Engage Middle School Students in Community Change. Health Education & Behavior: The Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education, 45(1), 20–31.